Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Bolling%20BW%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=25977015
Food Chem. 2015 Nov 15;187:189-96.
Abstract
The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice
pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of
the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while
proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol
increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin
concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation.
Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol,
and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid
may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents
inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components
contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.
Aronia berry (Aronia mitschurinii ‘Viking’) inhibits colitis in mice and inhibits T cell tumour necrosis
factor-α secretion
Derek A.Martin ab1 Joan A.Smyth cd ZhenhuaLiu e Bradley W.Bolling ab1
Journal of Functional Foods
Volume 44, May 2018, Pages 48-57
Abstract
Aronia berries are rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that aronia
berry consumption modulates intestinal immune function and T cells. The aims of the present work
were to assess the immunomodulatory potential of ‘Viking’ aronia berry (black chokeberry, Aronia
mitschurinii) in vivo and to determine the extent aronia berry polyphenols or known microbial
polyphenol catabolites inhibit T cell tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Aronia berry consumption
increased colonic IL-10 secretion in healthy mice, but did not inhibit ex vivo cytokine secretion of
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated spleen and colon tissue. Aronia berry consumption inhibited wasting
associated with T cell adoptive transfer and dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis. Aronia extracts,
neutral phenols fraction, and the polyphenol catabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-
dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid inhibited TNF-α production in Jurkat T cells. Therefore, T cells and
microbial catabolism partly mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of aronia consumption in the colon.
Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis.
Ohgami K 1 , Ilieva I, Shiratori K, Koyama Y, Jin XH, Yoshida K, Kase S, Kitaichi N, Suzuki Y, Tanaka T, Ohno
S.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jan;46(1):275-81.
Abstract
PURPOSE:
Aronia crude extract (ACE) with high levels of polyphenol compounds has been reported to have
antioxidative effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of
ACE. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ACE on endotoxin-induced uveitis
(EIU) in rats. In addition, the endotoxin-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)
and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins was investigated in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7)
treated with ACE in vitro, to clarify the anti-inflammatory effect.
METHODS:

EIU was induced in male Lewis rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immediately after
the LPS inoculation, 1, 10, or 100 mg ACE or 10 mg prednisolone was injected intravenously. After 24
hours, the aqueous humor was collected from both eyes, and the number of infiltrating cells, protein
concentration, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG)-E2, and TNF-alpha levels in the aqueous humor
were determined. RAW 264.7 cells treated with various concentrations of ACE were incubated with 10
mug/mL LPS for 24 hours. Levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha were determined by an enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins was analyzed by Western blot
analysis.
RESULTS:
The number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentrations, and the levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-
alpha in the aqueous humor in the groups treated with ACE were significantly decreased in a dose-
dependent manner. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of 100 mg ACE was as strong as that of 10
mg prednisolone. The anti-inflammatory action of ACE was stronger than that of either quercetin or
anthocyanin administered alone. ACE also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions
in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results suggest that ACE has a dose-dependent anti-ocular inflammatory effect that is due to the
direct blocking of the expression of the iNOS and COX-2 enzymes and leads to the suppression of the
production of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha.

Extracts, anthocyanins and procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as radical scavengers and enzyme
inhibitors.
Bräunlich M 1 , Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H.
Nutrients. 2013 Mar 4;5(3):663-78.
Abstract
Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries
and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities.
Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical,
inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase.
Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the
weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the
sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent
α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity
towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher
activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests
that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood
glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

Consumption of chokeberry (Aronia mitschurinii) products modestly lowered blood pressure and
reduced low-grade inflammation in patients with mildly elevated blood pressure.
Loo BM 1 , Erlund I 2 , Koli R 3 , Puukka P 4 , Hellström J 5 , Wähälä K 6 , Mattila P 5 , Jula A 7 .
Nutr Res. 2016 Nov;36(11):1222-1230.
Abstract
Previous studies suggest that consumption of chokeberries may improve cardiovascular disease risk
factor profiles. We hypothesized that chokeberries (Aronia mitschurinii) have beneficial effects on blood
pressure, low-grade inflammation, serum lipids, serum glucose, and platelet aggregation in patients with

untreated mild hypertension. A total of 38 participants were enrolled into a 16-week single blinded
crossover trial. The participants were randomized to use cold-pressed 100% chokeberry juice (300 mL/d)
and oven-dried chokeberry powder (3 g/d), or matched placebo products in random order for 8 weeks
each with no washout period. The daily portion of chokeberry products was prepared from
approximately 336 g of fresh chokeberries. Urinary excretion of various polyphenols and their
metabolites increased during the chokeberry period, indicating good compliance. Chokeberries
decreased daytime blood pressure and low-grade inflammation. The daytime ambulatory diastolic blood
pressure decreased (-1.64 mm Hg, P = .02), and the true awake ambulatory systolic (-2.71 mm Hg, P =
.077) and diastolic (-1.62 mm Hg, P = .057) blood pressure tended to decrease. The concentrations of
interleukin (IL) 10 and tumor necrosis factor α decreased (-1.9 pg/mL [P = .008] and -0.67 pg/mL [P =
.007], respectively) and tended to decrease for IL-4 and IL-5 (-4.5 pg/mL [P = .084] and -0.06 pg/mL [P =
.059], respectively). No changes in serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, and in vitro platelet aggregation
were noted with the chokeberry intervention. These findings suggest that inclusion of chokeberry
products in the diet of participants with mildly elevated blood pressure has minor beneficial effects on
cardiovascular health.