Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability

Research by Christine Peters

Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

Bolling BW1, Taheri R2, Pei R2, Kranz S2, Yu M2, Durocher SN3, Brand MH3.

Food Chem. 2015 Nov 15;187:189-96.

Abstract

The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of ‘Viking’ aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.

 

This study has the tremendous potential to inform growers of optimum harvest time and, more importantly, give clues as to the determination of that time. In reading it, you’ll see beverage industry standards were kept in mind.  Moreover, inclusion of pH measurements in the study is an important consideration for the beverage industry as well as researchers, and for establishing claims about the health benefits of Aronia juice.

 

Aronia berry (Aronia mitschurinii ‘Viking’) inhibits colitis in mice and inhibits T cell tumour necrosis factor-α secretion

Derek A.Martinab1Joan A.SmythcdZhenhuaLiueBradley W.Bollingab1

Journal of Functional Foods

Volume 44, May 2018, Pages 48-57

Abstract

Aronia berries are rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that aronia berry consumption modulates intestinal immune function and T cells. The aims of the present work were to assess the immunomodulatory potential of ‘Viking’ aronia berry (black chokeberry, Aronia mitschurinii) in vivo and to determine the extent aronia berry polyphenols or known microbial polyphenol catabolites inhibit T cell tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Aronia berry consumption increased colonic IL-10 secretion in healthy mice, but did not inhibit ex vivo cytokine secretion of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated spleen and colon tissue. Aronia berry consumption inhibited wasting associated with T cell adoptive transfer and dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis. Aronia extracts, neutral phenols fraction, and the polyphenol catabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid inhibited TNF-α production in Jurkat T cells. Therefore, T cells and microbial catabolism partly mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of aronia consumption in the colon.

 

This thorough study is of particular importance to researchers studying Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which consists of Crohn’s and Ulcerative colitis. The escalating costs of treatment for these diseases drives the need for functional foods and translational medicine.  Of particular interest in this study is the measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

 

Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis.

Ohgami K1, Ilieva I, Shiratori K, Koyama Y, Jin XH, Yoshida K, Kase S, Kitaichi N, Suzuki Y, Tanaka T, Ohno S.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jan;46(1):275-81.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Aronia crude extract (ACE) with high levels of polyphenol compounds has been reported to have antioxidative effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of ACE. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ACE on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. In addition, the endotoxin-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins was investigated in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) treated with ACE in vitro, to clarify the anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS:

EIU was induced in male Lewis rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immediately after the LPS inoculation, 1, 10, or 100 mg ACE or 10 mg prednisolone was injected intravenously. After 24 hours, the aqueous humor was collected from both eyes, and the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG)-E2, and TNF-alpha levels in the aqueous humor were determined. RAW 264.7 cells treated with various concentrations of ACE were incubated with 10 mug/mL LPS for 24 hours. Levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis.

RESULTS:

The number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentrations, and the levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha in the aqueous humor in the groups treated with ACE were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of 100 mg ACE was as strong as that of 10 mg prednisolone. The anti-inflammatory action of ACE was stronger than that of either quercetin or anthocyanin administered alone. ACE also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results suggest that ACE has a dose-dependent anti-ocular inflammatory effect that is due to the direct blocking of the expression of the iNOS and COX-2 enzymes and leads to the suppression of the production of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha.

 

Studies such as this one are of vital importance to Crohn’s patients as they are susceptible to systemic inflammation. Inflammation that can lead to vision loss if of considerable concern. This studies discusses the good possibility of Aronia crude extract providing significant anti-inflammatory properties.

 

Extracts, anthocyanins and procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as radical scavengers and enzyme inhibitors.

Bräunlich M1, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H.

Nutrients. 2013 Mar 4;5(3):663-78.

Abstract

Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

 

Oxidative stress is considered one of the factors that affects patients who suffer from auto-immune diseases. Often, patients suffer from multiple auto-immune diseases, and while a well-managed medication schedule can ameliorate symptoms, they often need immune health support. This study may lead to additional treatment via Aronia supplementation.  

 

Consumption of chokeberry (Aronia mitschurinii) products modestly lowered blood pressure and reduced low-grade inflammation in patients with mildly elevated blood pressure.

Loo BM1, Erlund I2, Koli R3, Puukka P4, Hellström J5, Wähälä K6, Mattila P5, Jula A7.

Nutr Res. 2016 Nov;36(11):1222-1230.

Abstract

Previous studies suggest that consumption of chokeberries may improve cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles. We hypothesized that chokeberries (Aronia mitschurinii) have beneficial effects on blood pressure, low-grade inflammation, serum lipids, serum glucose, and platelet aggregation in patients with untreated mild hypertension. A total of 38 participants were enrolled into a 16-week single blinded crossover trial. The participants were randomized to use cold-pressed 100% chokeberry juice (300 mL/d) and oven-dried chokeberry powder (3 g/d), or matched placebo products in random order for 8 weeks each with no washout period. The daily portion of chokeberry products was prepared from approximately 336 g of fresh chokeberries. Urinary excretion of various polyphenols and their metabolites increased during the chokeberry period, indicating good compliance. Chokeberries decreased daytime blood pressure and low-grade inflammation. The daytime ambulatory diastolic blood pressure decreased (-1.64 mm Hg, P = .02), and the true awake ambulatory systolic (-2.71 mm Hg, P = .077) and diastolic (-1.62 mm Hg, P = .057) blood pressure tended to decrease. The concentrations of interleukin (IL) 10 and tumor necrosis factor α decreased (-1.9 pg/mL [P = .008] and -0.67 pg/mL [P = .007], respectively) and tended to decrease for IL-4 and IL-5 (-4.5 pg/mL [P = .084] and -0.06 pg/mL [P = .059], respectively). No changes in serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, and in vitro platelet aggregation were noted with the chokeberry intervention. These findings suggest that inclusion of chokeberry products in the diet of participants with mildly elevated blood pressure has minor beneficial effects on cardiovascular health.

 

Since cardiovascular health is a wide-spread concern in the United States, the effect of Aronia extracts on blood-pressure is important. While this disease focused on mild hypertension, the impact of Aronia was statistically significant, and therefore merits further research.  

Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Bolling%20BW%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=25977015
Food Chem. 2015 Nov 15;187:189-96.
Abstract
The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice
pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of
the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while
proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol
increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin
concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation.
Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol,
and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid
may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents
inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components
contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.
Aronia berry (Aronia mitschurinii ‘Viking’) inhibits colitis in mice and inhibits T cell tumour necrosis
factor-α secretion
Derek A.Martin ab1 Joan A.Smyth cd ZhenhuaLiu e Bradley W.Bolling ab1
Journal of Functional Foods
Volume 44, May 2018, Pages 48-57
Abstract
Aronia berries are rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that aronia
berry consumption modulates intestinal immune function and T cells. The aims of the present work
were to assess the immunomodulatory potential of ‘Viking’ aronia berry (black chokeberry, Aronia
mitschurinii) in vivo and to determine the extent aronia berry polyphenols or known microbial
polyphenol catabolites inhibit T cell tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Aronia berry consumption
increased colonic IL-10 secretion in healthy mice, but did not inhibit ex vivo cytokine secretion of
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated spleen and colon tissue. Aronia berry consumption inhibited wasting
associated with T cell adoptive transfer and dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis. Aronia extracts,
neutral phenols fraction, and the polyphenol catabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-
dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid inhibited TNF-α production in Jurkat T cells. Therefore, T cells and
microbial catabolism partly mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of aronia consumption in the colon.
Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis.
Ohgami K 1 , Ilieva I, Shiratori K, Koyama Y, Jin XH, Yoshida K, Kase S, Kitaichi N, Suzuki Y, Tanaka T, Ohno
S.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jan;46(1):275-81.
Abstract
PURPOSE:
Aronia crude extract (ACE) with high levels of polyphenol compounds has been reported to have
antioxidative effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of
ACE. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ACE on endotoxin-induced uveitis
(EIU) in rats. In addition, the endotoxin-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)
and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins was investigated in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7)
treated with ACE in vitro, to clarify the anti-inflammatory effect.
METHODS:

EIU was induced in male Lewis rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immediately after
the LPS inoculation, 1, 10, or 100 mg ACE or 10 mg prednisolone was injected intravenously. After 24
hours, the aqueous humor was collected from both eyes, and the number of infiltrating cells, protein
concentration, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG)-E2, and TNF-alpha levels in the aqueous humor
were determined. RAW 264.7 cells treated with various concentrations of ACE were incubated with 10
mug/mL LPS for 24 hours. Levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha were determined by an enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins was analyzed by Western blot
analysis.
RESULTS:
The number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentrations, and the levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-
alpha in the aqueous humor in the groups treated with ACE were significantly decreased in a dose-
dependent manner. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of 100 mg ACE was as strong as that of 10
mg prednisolone. The anti-inflammatory action of ACE was stronger than that of either quercetin or
anthocyanin administered alone. ACE also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions
in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results suggest that ACE has a dose-dependent anti-ocular inflammatory effect that is due to the
direct blocking of the expression of the iNOS and COX-2 enzymes and leads to the suppression of the
production of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha.

Extracts, anthocyanins and procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as radical scavengers and enzyme
inhibitors.
Bräunlich M 1 , Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H.
Nutrients. 2013 Mar 4;5(3):663-78.
Abstract
Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries
and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities.
Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical,
inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase.
Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the
weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the
sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent
α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity
towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher
activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests
that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood
glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

Consumption of chokeberry (Aronia mitschurinii) products modestly lowered blood pressure and
reduced low-grade inflammation in patients with mildly elevated blood pressure.
Loo BM 1 , Erlund I 2 , Koli R 3 , Puukka P 4 , Hellström J 5 , Wähälä K 6 , Mattila P 5 , Jula A 7 .
Nutr Res. 2016 Nov;36(11):1222-1230.
Abstract
Previous studies suggest that consumption of chokeberries may improve cardiovascular disease risk
factor profiles. We hypothesized that chokeberries (Aronia mitschurinii) have beneficial effects on blood
pressure, low-grade inflammation, serum lipids, serum glucose, and platelet aggregation in patients with

untreated mild hypertension. A total of 38 participants were enrolled into a 16-week single blinded
crossover trial. The participants were randomized to use cold-pressed 100% chokeberry juice (300 mL/d)
and oven-dried chokeberry powder (3 g/d), or matched placebo products in random order for 8 weeks
each with no washout period. The daily portion of chokeberry products was prepared from
approximately 336 g of fresh chokeberries. Urinary excretion of various polyphenols and their
metabolites increased during the chokeberry period, indicating good compliance. Chokeberries
decreased daytime blood pressure and low-grade inflammation. The daytime ambulatory diastolic blood
pressure decreased (-1.64 mm Hg, P = .02), and the true awake ambulatory systolic (-2.71 mm Hg, P =
.077) and diastolic (-1.62 mm Hg, P = .057) blood pressure tended to decrease. The concentrations of
interleukin (IL) 10 and tumor necrosis factor α decreased (-1.9 pg/mL [P = .008] and -0.67 pg/mL [P =
.007], respectively) and tended to decrease for IL-4 and IL-5 (-4.5 pg/mL [P = .084] and -0.06 pg/mL [P =
.059], respectively). No changes in serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, and in vitro platelet aggregation
were noted with the chokeberry intervention. These findings suggest that inclusion of chokeberry
products in the diet of participants with mildly elevated blood pressure has minor beneficial effects on
cardiovascular health.

Midwest Aronia Association is Recognized on the Agricultural Marketing Resource Center

https://www.agmrc.org/commodities-products/fruits/aronia-berries/

Susceptibility of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Susceptibility of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Katie Hietala-Henschell, Emma Pelton and Christelle Guédot

Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society / Apr 2017 / pg(s) 162-170

Abstract: 

Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest of cultivated fruit crops in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. However, more information is needed to understand the extent of D. suzukii utilization of wild fruit and specialty crops as suitable hosts, such as aronia (Aronia melanocarpa), for which risk assessment has not yet been established. Both laboratory bioassays and field monitoring were conducted to assess the susceptibly of aronia to D. suzukii. No-choice bioassays were conducted on damaged, destemmed, and undamaged aronia fruit. Field infestation was assessed using yeast-sugar traps for adults and fruit samples for larvae during the 2015 growing season at three farms in south-central Wisconsin. In bioassays, D. suzukii successfully completed its life cycle in damaged and destemmed aronia, while undamaged aronia did not support larval or adult development. Adult flies which emerged from damaged aronia took longer to develop and weighed less compared to adults emerging from raspberry. In the field, adults were abundant throughout the growing season (late June–late September) and larvae were detected in low numbers in ripe fruit samples collected from late August through late September. After harvest, fruit sampled from the processing and packing line revealed low numbers of drosophila larvae. Overall, these findings suggest that damaged or destemmed aronia is susceptible to D. suzukii infestation, while intact fruit is resistant to D. suzukii. In addition, the bioassays suggest that aronia may serve as a suboptimal host compared to raspberry. These findings suggest the importance of preventing fruit damage before harvest and add to a growing understanding of how wild and specialty crops, such as aronia, may affect population dynamics of this invasive fly.