Low-Dose Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity

Low-Dose Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity

Abstract

Herbicides containing paraquat may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Paraquat induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in neurons, which is a primary mechanism behind its toxicity. We sought to test the effectiveness of a commercially available polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa (aronia berry) concentrate in the amelioration of paraquat-induced neurotoxicity. Considering the abundance of antioxidants in aronia berries, we hypothesized that aronia berry concentrate attenuates the paraquat-induced increase in reactive oxygen species and protects against paraquat-mediated neuronal cell death. Using a neuronal cell culture model, we observed that low doses of aronia berry concentrate protected against paraquat-mediated neurotoxicity. Additionally, low doses of the concentrate attenuated the paraquat-induced increase in superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and oxidized glutathione levels. Interestingly, high doses of aronia berry concentrate increased neuronal superoxide levels independent of paraquat, while at the same time decreasing hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, high-dose aronia berry concentrate potentiated paraquat-induced superoxide production and neuronal cell death. In summary, aronia berry concentrate at low doses restores the homeostatic redox environment of neurons treated with paraquat, while high doses exacerbate the imbalance leading to further cell death. Our findings support that moderate levels of aronia berry concentrate may prevent reactive oxygen species-mediated neurotoxicity.

Reduction of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after one month of drinking Aronia melanocarpa berry juice.

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Food Funct. 2016 Jul 13;7(7):3111-20. doi: 10.1039/c6fo00321d.
Reduction of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after one month of drinking Aronia melanocarpa berry juice.

Tomić M1, Ignjatović Đ1, Tovilović-Kovačević G1, Krstić-Milošević D1, Ranković S2, Popović T2, Glibetić M2.
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Abstract

The treatment of mood and anxiety disorders by nutraceuticals is gaining growing awareness. Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Black chokeberry) and their extracts, exceptionally abundant in diverse phenolic compounds, have become famous for the highest in vitro antioxidant activity among fruits and notable health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective). This study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of month-long unlimited consumption of Aronia master juice (AJ) and/or juice reconstruct without polyphenols (RJ), in young male rats. AJ was initially evaluated for its content of phenolic compounds by spectrophotometric assays and HPLC-DAD. Rats that were supplied with three various water concentrations of AJ and RJ, respectively: 20% + 0% (ARO group), 5% + 15% (RAJ) and 0 + 20% (PLC), were compared with those which consumed only water (CTL). Daily drinking of AJ solution was significantly elevated from the second or third week onward, which was most expressed in the ARO group. Only this group displayed behavioral variations, manifested by certain hyperactivity in open field tests and prominent reductions of anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. The ARO rats also expressed an alleviation of depression-like behavior in forced swimming tests. These findings demonstrate the beneficial behavioral effects of the one-month-long free drinking of phenolic-rich AJ in rats (>20 ml per kg b. mass daily) that may be recognized as stimulating, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like. The in vitro assays suggested that MAO-A/MAO-B inhibitions by the phenolic compounds of AJ might be the possible in vivo mechanisms for such behavioral actions.

PMID:
27273205
DOI:
10.1039/c6fo00321d
[PubMed – in process]

Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice.

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:6145926. doi: 10.1155/2016/6145926. Epub 2016 Apr 30.
Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice.

Lee HY1, Weon JB2, Jung YS2, Kim NY2, Kim MK1, Ma CJ3.
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Abstract

Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa) berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4) and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg). A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract.

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Food Funct. 2016 Jul 13;7(7):3111-20. doi: 10.1039/c6fo00321d.

Reduction of Adipogenesis by Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Extract in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/4/4/3/

Effects of Weather Conditions on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Juice of Chokeberries

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjfns.ahead-of-print/pjfns-2016-0009/pjfns-2016-0009.xml

Wild berry extract may strengthen effectiveness of pancreatic cancer drug

http://www.southampton.ac.uk/news/2014/09/18-wild-berry-extract-effectiveness-of-pancreatic-cancer-drug.page

Antioxidant-Rich Berries Beyond Blueberries

https://www.yahoo.com/food/superfoods-antioxidant-rich-berries-beyond-118365384646.html?utm_medium=Social&utm_source=Twitter&utm_campaign=Leadify